Problems of requirement analysis
Practically every BI project is about requirements, because requirements communicate “what the client wants”. There are essentially two problems with this communication: the first is that clients often do not end up with what they really need. This is illustrated in the famous drawing in Figure 1: What the customer really needs.
The second problem is that requirements can change over time. Thus, it can be that, especially in the case of long implementation cycles, the client and the contractor share a close consensus about what is wanted at the time of the requirement analysis. By the time the solution goes into operation, however, essential requirements may have changed.
Of course, there is no simple remedy for these challenges in practice. Various influencing factors need to be optimized. In particular, the demand for speed calls for an agile approach, especially in BI projects. I have already written various articles, including Steps towards more agility in BI projects In that article, among other things, I describe the importance of standardization. This also applies to requirement analysis. Unfortunately, the classic literature on requirement management is not very helpful; it is either too general or too strongly focused on software development. At IT-Logix, we have developed a framework over the last ten years that helps us and our customers in BI projects to standardize requirements and generate BI-specific results. Every child needs a name, and our framework is called IBIREF (the IT-Logix Business Intelligence Requirements Engineering Framework)
Overview of IBIREF
IBIREF is divided into three areas:
- The area of requirement topics addresses the question of what subjects should be considered at all as requirements in a BI project. I’ll go into a little more detail about this later in this article.
- In the requirements analysis process, the framework defines possible procedures for collecting requirements. Our preferred form is an iterative-incremental (i.e. agile) process; I have dealt here with the subject of an agile development process through some user stories. It is, of course, equally possible to raise the requirements upfront in a classic waterfall process.
- We have also created a range of tools to simplify and speed up the requirement collection process, depending on the process variant. This includes various checklists, forms and slides.
Overview of requirement topics
Now I would like to take a first look at the structuring of possible requirement topics.
Here are a few points about each topic:
- The broad requirements that arise from the project environment need to be considered to integrate a BI project properly. Which business processes should be supported by the BI solution to be developed? What are the basic professional, organizational or technical conditions? What are the project aims and the project scope?
- If the BI solution to be created includes a data warehouse (DWH), the requirements for this system component must be collected. We split the data requirements into two groups: The target perspective provides information about the key figures, dimensions and related requirements, such as historiography or the need for hierarchies. This is all well and good, but the source perspective should not be forgotten either. Many requirements for the DWH arise from the nature of the source data. In addition, requirements for metadata and security in the DWH have to be clarified.
- The BI application area includes all front-end requirements. This starts with the definition of the information products required (reports, dashboards, etc.), their target publication, purpose and data contents. One can then consider how the users navigate to and within the information products and what logic the selection options follow. One central consideration is the visualization of the data, whether in the form of tables or of diagrams. In this area, advanced standards such as the IBCS provide substantial support for the requirement analysis process (read an overview of my blog contributions to IBCS and Information Design here). The functionalities sub-item concerns requirements such as exporting and commenting. When it comes to distribution, it is interesting to know the channels through which the information products are made available to the users. And it is important to ask what security is required in the area of BI application too.
- The issue of requirement metadata is often neglected; however, it is useful to clarify this as early as possible in the project. This concerns the type of additional information to be collected about a requirement: Does one know who is responsible for a requirement? When was it raised, and when was it changed again? Are acceptance criteria also being collected as part of the requirement analysis?
- Lastly, requirements need to be collected for the documentation and training required for the use and administration of the BI system.
In this article, I have indicated that requirement analysis presents a challenge, both in general and especially in BI projects. Our IBIREF framework enables us to apply a standardized approach with the help of BI-specific tools. This allows both our customers and us to capture requirements more precisely, more completely and more quickly, thus enhancing the quality of the BI solution to be created.
Upcoming event: Please visit my team and me at our workshop at the TDWI Europe Conference in Munich in late June 2017. The theme is “Practice Makes Perfect: Practical Analysis of Requirements for a Dashboard” (though the workshop will be held in German). We will use the IBIREF framework, focusing on the BI application part, in roleplays and learn how to apply them. Register now—the number of seats for this workshop is limited!
(This article was first published by me in German on http://blog.it-logix.ch/bi-anforderungen-bi-spezifisch-erheben/)